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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain how children and adults change over time.

A significant proportion of theories within this discipline focus upon developmental during childhood, as this is the period during an individual's lifespan when the most change occurs.

Developmental psychologists study a wide range of theoretical areas, such as biological, social, emotion, and cognitive processes. Empirical research in this area tends to be dominated by psychologists from western cultures such as North American and Europe, although during the 1980s Japanese researchers began making a valid contribution to the field.

The three goals of developmental psychology are to describe, explain, and to optimize development (Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980).

To describe development it is necessary to focus both on typical patterns of change (normative development) and on individual variations in patterns of change (i.e. idiographic development).

Normative development is typically viewed as a continual and cumulative process. However, it should be noted that people can change if important aspects of one's life change. This capacity for change is called plasticity. For example, Rutter (1981) discovered than somber babies living in understaffed orphanages often become cheerful and affectionate when placed in socially stimulating adoptive homes.

When trying to explain development, it is important to consider the relative contribution of both nature and nurture. Nature refers to the process of biological maturation inheritance and maturation. Nurture refers to the impact of the environment, which involves the process of learning through experiences.

One of the reasons why the development of human beings is so similar is because our common specifies heredity (DNA) guides all of us through many of the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives.

Historical Origins

Developmental psychology as a discipline did not exist until after the industrial revolution when the need for an educated workforce led to the social construction of childhood as a distinct stage in a person's life. The notion of childhood originates in the western world and this is why the early research derives from this location. Initially developmental psychologists were interested in studying the mind of the child so that education and learning could be more effective.

Developmental changes during adulthood is an even more recent area of study. This is mainly due to advances in medical science enabling people to live to an old age.

Charles Darwin is credited with conducting the first systematic study of developmental psychology. In 1877 he published a short paper detailing the development of innate forms of communication based on scientific observations of his infant son, Doddy.

However, the emergence of developmental psychology as a specific discipline can be traced back to 1882 when Wilhelm Preyer (a German physiologist) published a book entitled The Mind of the Child. In the book Preyer describes the development of his own daughter from birth to two and a half years. Importantly, Preyer used rigorous scientific procedure throughout studying the many abilities of his daughter.

In 1888 Preyer's publication was translated into English, by which time developmental psychology as a discipline was fully established with a further 47 empirical studies from Europe, North America and Britain also published to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge in the field.

During the 1900s three key figures have dominated the field with their extensive theories of human development, namely Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and John Bowlby (1907-1990). Indeed much of the current research continues to be influenced by these three theorists.

Theories of Development

piaget stage of development

Piaget's Cognitive Theory

Piaget believed that children think differently than adults and stated they go through 4 universal stages of cognitive development. Development is therefore biologically based and changes as the child matures.

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Object permanence

Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

Piaget described this stage from birth to approximately 2 years is a period of rapid cognitive growth were a child develops an understanding of object permanence.

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three mountains task

Piaget's Preoperational Stage

The preoperational stage ranges from about ages 2 to 7. Their thoughts and communications are. typically egocentric (tested using the three mountains task).

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conservation of liquid

Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage

Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought.

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formal operational thinking

Piaget's Formal Operational Stage

This stage starts at age 11 and involves the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order reasoning.

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head image of Vygotsky

Vygotsky's Social Development Theory

Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition.

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ZPD Diagram

Zone of Proximal Developmental

Vygotsky views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies within the zone of proximal development.

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John Bowlby

Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Bowlby’s theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments.

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crying baby

Attachment Theory

Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space.

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References

Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. and Lipsett, L. (1980) Lifespan developmental psychology, Annual Review of Pyschology 31: 65 – 110.

Darwin, C. (1877). A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. Mind, 2, 285-294.

Preyer, W.T. (1882). Die Seele des Kindes: Beobachtungen über die geistige Entwicklung des Menschen in den ersten Lebensjahren.Grieben, Leipzig,

Preyer, W.T. (1888). The soul of the child: observations on the mental development of man in the first years of life.

Rutter, M. (1981). STRESS, COPING AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME ISSUES AND SOME QUESTIONS*. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22(4), 323-356.

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2012). Developmental Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/developmental-psychology.html

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