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Reference List: APA 7th Referencing Style Guide

Reference List: APA 7th Referencing Style Guide

By Saul McLeod, published 2019, updated 2020


The APA reference list is the final page of your paper where all sources you cited in the main text are listed.

It should include the full details of all sources you cited in the main text, arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname.

Everything cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and everything in your reference list must be something you have referred to in text. Make sure you don't have anything in one place that isn't in the other.

Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019.

Reference List: Basic Rules

List references on a new page.

Type “References” as page heading, written in boldface, at the top center of the page.

Use double spacing.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

For multiple articles by the same author, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry using a hanging indent of 5-7 spaces (by pressing Ctrl + T on a PC, or Command (⌘) + T on a Mac).

All references in APA end with a full stop except when the reference ends with a URL or a DOI.

APA Reference List Example

An example of an APA format reference list

Journal Article Reference in APA Format

Author or authors. The surname is followed by a comma and the first initials.

Year of publication of the article (in parentheses). End with a period.

Article title. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. End with a period.

Capitalize all major words in the title of the journal, followed by a comma.

Italicize journal title and volume number. Do not put a space between in the volue number and the parentheses around the issue number.

Issue number of journal in parentheses (no italics) followed by a comma.

Page range of article. Use an en dash (not a hyphen); do not put spaces around the dash. End with a period.

Include a DOI (digital object identifier) for all works that have one (i.e. online journal articles). Do not put a period after the DOI url.

  • Journal Article (Online): One Author
  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: or URL of the journal's home page

  • Matsunaga, M. (2011). Underlying circuits of social support for bullied victims: An appraisalbased perspective on supportive communication and postbullying adjustment. Human Communication Research, 37(2), 174-206. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01398.x

  • Journal Article (Online): 2-7 Authors
  • Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A., & Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: or URL of the journal's home page

  • Williams, S. L., & Mickelson, K. D. (2008). A paradox of support seeking and rejection among the stigmatized. Personal Relationships, 15(4), 493-509. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2008.00212.x

An example of an APA journal article reference

Book Reference in APA Format

Author or authors. The surname is followed by a comma and the first initials.

Year of publication of the article (in parentheses). End with a period.

Book title (in italics). Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. End with a period.

Edition (in parentheses), if other than first. Position this after the title but before the period.

Incude the name of the publisher, followed by a period. Do not include the publisher location.

Include a DOI for all workds that have one, regardless of whether you used the online version or print version. Do not put a period after the DOI url.

  • Book: One Author
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the work. Publisher.

  • Fletcher, D. P. (2018). Disrupters: Success strategies for women who break the mold. Entrepreneur Press.

  • Book: Two Authors, and Edition
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the work (edition). Publisher.

  • Moran, A., & Toner, J. (2017). A critical introduction to sport psychology (3rd ed.). Routledge.

  • Chapter in an Edited Book: One Author
  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pages of chapter). Publisher.

  • Haybron, M. D. (2008). Philosophy and the science of the subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Guilford Press.

An example of an APA book reference

Reference for a Chapter in Edited Book in APA Format

Author or authors. The surname is followed by a comma and the first initials.

Year of publication of the article (in parentheses). End with a period.

Title of the book chapter. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. End with a period.

Write the word "In" and the initials and last name (not inverted) of each editor. Use "(Ed.)" for one editor or "(Eds.)" for multiple editors. End with a comma.

Book title (in italics). Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. End with a period.

Write "pp." and include the chapter page range (in parentheses). End with a period.

Include a DOI if available. Do not put a period after the DOI url.

An example of an APA book reference

Reference for a Chapter in Edited Book in APA Format

Author or authors. The surname is followed by a comma and the first initials.

Year, Month Day of publication (in parentheses). Use the most exact date possible. End with a period.

Title (in italics). End with a period.

Website name. Capitalize all major words. End with a period.

Website URL. Do not put a period after the url.

APA Website Reference Example

McLeod, S. A. (2019, September 29). APA reference page example and formatting guide. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/apa-reference-page.html

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