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Biological Psychology

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Biology is defined as the study of life (from the Greek bios meaning ‘life’ and logos meaning ‘study’). A biological perspective is relevant to the study of psychology in three ways:

    1. Comparative method: different species of animal can be studied and compared. This can help in the search to understand human behavior.

    2. Physiology: how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions, how changes in structure and/or function can affect behavior. For example, we could ask how prescribed drugs to treat depression affect behavior through their interaction with the nervous system.

    3. Investigation of inheritance: what an animal inherits from its parents, mechanisms of inheritance (genetics). For example, we might want to know whether high intelligence is inherited from one generation to the next.

Each of these biological aspects, the comparative, the physiological and the genetic, can help explain human behavior.

History of The Biological Approach

* The Voyage of the Beagle (1805 - 1836) - Darwin formulated his theory of natural selection through observing animals while travelling the world.

* Harlow (1848) Phineas Gage brain injury case study provides neuroscience with significant information regarding the working of the brain.

* Darwin (1859) publishes "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection". 1,250 copies were printed, most of which sold the first day.

* Jane Goodall (1957) began her study of primates in Africa, discovering that chimps have behaviors similar to all the human cultures on the planet.

* Edward Wilson (1975) published his book, "Sociobiology" which brought together evolutionary perspective to the psychology.

* The birth of Evolutionary Psychology begins with the publication of an essay "The Psychological Foundations of Culture" by Tooby and Cosmides (1992).

Biological Approach Summary

Key Features Methodology
Basic Assumptions Areas of Application
  • Psychology should be seen as a science, to be studied in a scientific manner (usually in a laboratory).
  • Behavior can be largely explained in terms of biology (e.g. genes/hormones).
  • Human genes have evolved over millions of years to adapt behavior to the environment. Therefore, most behavior will have an adaptive / evolutionary purpose.
Strengths Limitations
  • Very Scientific
  • Highly application to other areas: Biology + Cog = Evolutionary Psy
  • Helped develop comparative psychology
  • Strong counter argument to the nurture side of the debate
  • Many empirical studies to support theories
  • Experiments – Low Ecological Validity
  • Humanism: too deterministic – little room for free-will
  • Doesn’t recognize cognitive processes
  • Reductionist
  • Bio psychological theories often over-simplify the huge complexity of physical systems and their interaction with the environment.

Critical Evaluation

Theories within the biological approach supports nature over nurture. However, it is limiting to describe behavior solely in terms of either nature or nurture, and attempts to do this underestimate the complexity of human behavior. It is more likely that behavior is due to an interaction between nature (biology) and nurture (environment).

A strength of the biological approach is that it provides clear predictions, for example, about the effects of neurotransmitters, or the behaviors of people who are genetically related. This means the explanations can be scientifically tested and ‘proven’.

A limitation is that most biological explanations are reductionist and don’t provide enough information to fully explain human behavior. Individuals may be predisposed to certain behaviors but these behaviors may not be displayed unless they are triggered by factors in the environmental. This is known as the ‘Diathesis Stress model’ of human behavior.


Darwin, C. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1st ed.). London: John Murray.

Harlow, J. M. (1848). Passage of an iron rod through the head. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 39, 389–393.

Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, E. (1975). Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Harvard University Press

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Biological Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/biological-psychology.html

Further Information

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Are Bigger Brains Better?

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Listen to a MIT undergraduate lecture on The Brain. Audio Broadcasts biological approach to psychology

BBC Radio 4: The influence of evolutionary theory, phrenology and a hole in Phineas Gage's head. Audio Broadcasts biological approach to psychology

BBC Radio 4: Dr Geoff Bunn discusses the impact of neurology on how we understand ourselves today. Audio Broadcasts biological approach to psychology

BBC Radio 4: Mind Myths. Audio Broadcasts biological approach to psychology

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